Friday, January 11, 2013

Materi Bahasa Inggris


NICK : 1209.10.06125


A noun clause is a dependent clause that functions as a noun. It can be subject, object, or subject of complement. Because a noun clause is dependent, it must be connected to an independent clause to form a complex sentence. A noun clause used as an object is preceded by an independent clause called an introductory clause.
A.    Squence of tenses in noun clauses
The verb in the introductory clause controls the tense of the verb in the noun clause, if the introductory clause verb is simple present, present perfect, or future, the verb in the noun clause is in whatever tense expresss the meaning that introductory clause intends.
Example :
1.      The prime ministers agree the global warming isa serious world problem.
2.      They hope that all nation will be responsible for solving this serious problem.
3.      Scientiists believethat atmospheric warming hasalready begun
4.      Measurements have indicated that the average temperature of the earth has risen in the past one hundred years.
5.      Further research will prove that carbon dioxcide is largely responsible.
However, when the verb in the introductory clause is in the past tense, the verb in the dependent clause is usually in a past form:
1.      The prime ministers agreed the global warming wasa serious world problem.
2.      They hoped that all nation would be responsible for solving this serious problem.
3.      Scientiists believedthat atmospheric warming hadalready begun
4.      Measurements had indicated that the average temperature of the earth had risenin the past one hundred years.
5.      Further research proved that carbon dioxcide was largely responsible.
B.    Noun Clause objects from statement, questions exclamation
Noun cluse
Derived from
Function of clause
A statement
Coffee grows in Brazil
Subject after it
Subject complement
Object of verb

That coffee grows in Brazil is well known to all
It is well known that coffee grows in Brazil
My understanding is that coffee grows in Brazil

I know that coffee grows in Brazil
A question
Expecting yes or no answer Will he get the money?

Interrogative word question how will he get the money?
Whether (or not) also if


Subject complement
Object of verb

Object of preposition

Subject complement
Object of verb

Object of preposition

Whether (or not) he gets the money does not concern me
The question is whetherhe will get the money

Do you know whether (or if)he will get the money?
We were concerned about whetherhe would get the money

How he gets the money is his own affair
The question is How he gets the money

I do not know how he will get the money

We were concerned about how he would get the money
A request
I  write the letter
Object of verb
He suggested that I  write the letter
An exclamation
What pretty girl she is!
Object of verb
Object of preposition
I had not realized what pretty girl she was!
We talked about what pretty girl she was!

That- clauses (statement)
That-clauses are made from statements and are introduced by the subordinator that. The word thatis often omitted if the meaning is clear without it. A that-clause is composed of
That + subject + verb + complement
… that the language center of the brain differs from in each person
… that different aspects of language, such as nouns and verbs, are processed in different areas of the brain.
Introductory clause verbs
No indirect
Indirect object
Optional; to
reguired with
indirect object
Indirect object required
Indirect object
Point out

The verbs in group I do not take an indirect object
We know that women have higher verbal IQs than men
The verbs in group II may or may not take an indirect object. However, if an indirect object is used, to must precede it.
The defense attorney proved (to the jury) that his client was not guilty.
The verbs in group III must be followed an indirect object
The doctor assured the worried parents that their child would recover
The verbs in group IV may or may not be followed by an indirect object
He promised (them) that they could see their child immediately after the operation
Wh-word clauses
A wh-word clause is a dependent noun clause in which the subordinator is a wh-word such as who, what, where, when, why, how much, how long, which, etc. A wh-word clause is coomposed of either
I consider what you said a great result
If/whether-clauses are dependent nouun clauses that are formed from yes/no questions and are introduced by the subordinator whether or if. An if/whether-clause is composed of
I doubt whether he will go or not
Introductory words
1.    Verbs of indirect speech – announce, ask, debate, explain, indicate, inquire, mention, reveal, say, state, tell
2.    Verbs of mental activity – care, choose, consider, decide, determine, doubt, find out, hear, judge, know, learn, notice, observe, see, wonder.
Noun clause from exclamation
Noun clause from exclamations are introduced by the same words that introduce exclamations – what, how. The word of exclamations is preserved in these noun clause
Exclamation    : how beautiful his wife is!
Noun clause    : I am amazed at how his wife is
Exclamation    : what a beautiful figure his wife has!
Noun clause    : he is always boasting about what a beautiful figure his wifehas
Introductory words
1.   Verbs of mental activity – realize, notice, see, remember, understand
I still remember what a wonderful cook his mother is
2.   Verbs of indireect speech that take prepositional objects – boast about, complain about, talk about, remark about,
The company isinvestigating his complaint about how badly the new bus driver
3.   After ed – participial adjectives of emotion as amazed, astonished, disappoiinted, disgusted, surprised. The noun clauses are the objects of the prepositions that follow the – edadjectives, usually at.
I was a stonished at how small their how was
a.       Noun Clauses after wish: referring to present and past time
b.      Changing famous statements to indirect speech
Uraian Materi
a.       Noun Clauses after wish: referring to present and past time
Present subjunctive:                I wish she were not late
                                          (Fact: sheis late)   
Past subjunctive:   I wish she had not been late
                                          (Fact: she was late)

Verb form in true sentence
Verb form following wish

A wish about the present
I do not know French
It is raining right now
I can not speak Javanese
I wish I knew French
I wish it were not raining right now
I wish I could speak English
Wish is used when the speaker wants reality to be different, to be exactly  the opposite. Verb forms similar to those in conditional sentences are used. Notice the example Wish is followed by a noun clause. The use of that is optional. Usually it is omitted in speaking
A wish about the past
John did not come
Mary could come
I wish John had come
I wish Mary could not have come
b.      Changing famous statements to indirect speech
There are two ways of relating what a person has said: by repeating the original speaker’s word (she said” I do not know about this”) or by giving the exact meaning of the remark without necessary using the speaker’s exact words (she said that she did not know about that).
Direct speech
Indirect speech
Simple present
Present continuous tense
Present perfect
Future tense
Simple past
Past continuous tense
Past perfect
Past future
Last night
Last week
Next year
That day
The previous day
The previous night
The previous week
The next day
 The following year

o  Dedi said “ dewi sells voucher”
     Dedi said that she sold voucher
o  Rima said “ Rio is happy
     Rima said that he was happy
o  Tom said “ my parents were sad yesterday
Tom said that his parents were sad the previous day

Materi Pokok Perkuliahan
Reading Comprehension
A College Lecture
Professor Sanchez gave a lecture on transistors last Tuesday. First, he explained what are transistors. He said, that they are very small electronic devices used in telephones, automobiles, radios, and so on. He further explained that transistors control the flow of electric current in eletronic equipment. He wante to know which popular technological invention can not operate without transistors. Most students agreed, it is the personal computer. The Professor Sanchez then asked if the students know how do transistors function in computer. He said that the transistor were etched into tiny silicon microchipsand that these transistors increase computers’ speed and data storage capacity. Then he asked the class when had transistors been invented? Sergei guessed that they were invented in 1947. The Professor said that he is correct. Professor Sanchez then asked what was the importance of this invention? Many students answered that it is the beginning of the information age. At the end of the lecture, the professor assigned a paper on transistors. He requested that each student chooses a topic by next Monday. He suggested that the papers are typed

Materi Pokok Perkuliahan
a.       Form of paticiples
b.      Puntuation and position of participial phrases
A participle is a word that is formed from a verb and used as an adjective to modify nouns.
Notice how an active voice verb is changed to a present participle by adding the suffix-ing to the verb. An active voice verb (present, past, or future tense) becomes a present participle.
Changing active verbs to participles
Present participles
Past participles
The woman jogged in the park
The custom fascinates me
The steak was burned
My heart was broken
The jogging woman ran through the park
The fascinating custom interests me
The burned steak tasted terrible
My broken heart will never heal

The terms present and past participle are misleading because these forms have nothing to do with present tense. Rather, they are based on active or active voice. The present participle comes from an active voice verb, and the past participle comes from a passive voice verb.
Participles phrases
Participles phrases are groups of words that contain participles + other modifiers. They are used to modify nouns and pronouns as follow:
1.    A car, speeding the wrong way down the street, struck a pedestrian
2.    Speeding the wrong way down the street, a car struck a pedestrian
3.    While crossing the street, a pedestrian was struck by a car.
a.       Form of participles
§  General form of participles – active voice
The general form participles in the active voice ends in – ing: crying, living, not knowing, etc. it may come from present, past, or future tense verbs.
Verb Tense
Sentence with relative clause
Sentence with participial phrases
Many students who study at this unviversity are from village
Many students studying at this university are from village
Present continuous
Students who are making a proposal must study reseach methodology
Students making a proposal must study reseach methodology
The tem member, who looked happy after their victory, were cheered by the pans.
The tem member, looking happy after their victory, were cheered by the pans.
The crowd, which was cheering widly as the game ended, wouldn’t leave the stadium
The crowd, cheering widly as the game ended,vwouldn’t leave the stadium
Everyone who will take seminar next month must preregister
Everyone taking seminar next month must preregister

§  General form of participles – passive voice
The general form participle in the passive voice is the “past participle” od third form of a verb: opened, spoken, sold, cut. This orm made from both present and past tense verbs
Verb Tense
Sentence with relative clause
Sentence with participial phrases
Lab reports that are not handed in by Friday will not accepted
Lab reports not handed in by Friday will not accepted
The prisoner, who was sorrounded by quards, walked calmly to this execution
The prisoner, sorrounded by quards, walked calmly to this execution
sorrounded by quards, The prisoner walked calmly to this execution
b.      Puntuation and position of participial phrases
Participial phrases, like relative clauses, can be restrictive (necessary) or nonrestrictive (unnecessary). If the original clause was nonrestrictive, the phrase will be also. Nonrestrictive phrases are separated from the test of the sentence by commas. Restrictive phrases use no commas.
The position of participial phrases in a sentence depends on whether it is restrictive or nonrestrictive.
·         A restrictive participial phrase follows the noun it modifies.
Restrictive            : there are twelve students receiving awards this year.
                               a student hoping to finish college in three years must work very hard
·         A nonrestrictive phrase may precede or follow the noun it modifies.
Nonrestrictive      : Teresa, hurrying to catch a bus, stumbled and fell.
                               Hurrying to catch a bus, Teresa stumbled and fell
Robert, hoping to finish college in three years, worked very hard

Materi Pokok Perkuliahan
a.       Participial phrasesin two – part object of verb
b.      Participial phrases alternatives for adverbial phrases
c.       Participial phrases to express means or manner
Uraian Materi
a.       Participial phrasesin two – part object of verb
Catch, keep, leave, send, find, behold, feel, hear, listen to, notice, observe, overhear, see, watch, witness.
§  The official kept (we, wait, several hours)
The official kept us waiting several hours
§  We watched (children, play, schoolyard)
We watched the children playing in the schoolyard
0r we watched the children play in the schoolyard
b.      Participial phrases alternatives for adverbial phrases
Participial phrases can also be formed from adverbial clauses. Time and reason clauses introduced by the subordinators after, while, when, before, since, because, and as can be reduced to participial phrases if the subjects of both the adverbial and independent clauses are the same.
To change an adverbial clause to participial phrase, follow these steps :
Step     1   Make sure that the subject of the adverbial clause and the subject of the independent clause are the same.
                 While technology creates new jobs in some sectors of the economy. It takes away jobs in others.
Step     2   Delete the subject of the adverbial clause. If necessary, move it to the subject position in the independents clause.
While technology creates new jobs in some sectors of the economy. It takes away jobs in others
Step     3   Change the adverbial clause verb to the appropriate participle.
 While creating new jobs in some sectors of the economy. technology takes away jobs in others
Step     4   Delete or retain the subordinator according to the following rules :
a.       Retain before, and retain since when it is a time subordinator.
b.      Delete all three reason subordinators because, since, and as. Delete as when it is a time subordinator
c.       Retain after, while, and when if the participial phrase follows the independent clause. When the phrase is in another position, you may either retain or delete these subordinators.
A participial phrase from an adeverbial clause may occupy several positions in a sentence. If a participial phrase from a reduced adverbial clause comes in front  of or in the middle of the independent clause, punctuate it with commas. If it comes after the independent clause, do not use commas.
·         Before student chooses a college, he or she should consider several factors
·         Before choosing a college, student should consider several factors
·         A student should coonsider several factors before choosing a college
c.       Participial phrases to express means or manner
·         He came to the party looking like a bum
·         He sat there staring at the wall
·         The boy tore his clothes climbing trees
·         He earns living driving a truck

Materi Pokok Perkuliahan
a.       Participle as adjectives
b.      Instructions with Have + Past Participle
Uraian Materi
a.       Participles as adjectives
Very often , where there is no regular adjective form of verb, the present or past participle of the verb can be used as an adjective. It is sometimes difficult for foreign students to decide whether to use the present (verb + ing) or past ( verb + ed) or (verb  + en) participle as an adjective.
The present participle (verb + ing) is used as adjective when the noun it modifies performs or is responsible for an action. The verb is usually intransitive (it does not take an object) and the verb form of the sentence is the progressive (continuous) aspect.
The crying baby woke Mr Jack
     (the baby was crying )
The blooming flowersin the meadow created a rainbow of colors
     (The flowers were blooming)
The purring kitten snuggled close to the fireplace
     (the kitten was purring)
The past participle is used an adjective when the noun it modifies is the receiver of the action. The sentence from which this adjective comes is generally in the passive aspect.
The sorted mail was delivered to the offices before noon
      (the mail had been sorted)
Frozen food is often easier to prepare than fresh food
     (the food had been frozen)
The imprisoned menwere unhappy with their living conditions.
     (the man had been imprisoned)
Other verbs such as interest, bore,excite, and frighten are even more difficult. The rule is basically the same as that given above. The (verb + ing) form is used when the noun causes the action and the (verb + ed) form is used when it receives the action. Compare the following groups of sentences
The boring professor put the students to sleep
The boring teacher put the students to sleep
The bored students went to sleep during the boring professor
The child saw a frightening movie
Thefrightened child began to cry
b.      Instructions with Have + Past Participle
Have is used to indicate that one person causes a second person to do something for the first person. One can cause somebody to something for him of her by paying, asking, or forcing the person. When have used as causative verb. The past participle is used after haveto give the passive meaning.
I had the painter paint my house last year
I had my house painted last year
He had the tailor alter his suit
he had his suit altered
We have the store deliver the packages
we have the package deliered

I had the painter paint my house last year
I had my house painted last year
He had the tailor alter his suit
he had his suit altered
We have the store deliver the packages
we have the package deliered
Materi Pokok Perkuliahan
A shot Autobigraphy
Born on November 12, 1980, in a small villave in Tembilahan. I learned responsibility at an early age. My family, consisted of my father, my mother, and seven younger brothers and sisters, is quite large. Being the oldest daughter, my responsilities were many. I helped my mother at home with the cooking and cleaning, and I was almost like a second mother to my younger siblings. By the time I was ten years old. I had learned how to soothe a crying baby, how to bandage an injuring knee or elbow. And especially how to get a boring schoolchild to finish his or her homework. Having been helped my brothers and sisters with their homework for so many years, I have developed a love of teaching. I hope to get a college degree in elementary education and teach either math or science in my hometown in Tembilahan.

Materi Pokok Perkuliahan
Gerund Phrases
A.   The simple gerund
The gerund is the – ing form of the verb used as a noun. Notice that the gerund has the same form as the present participle. However, it functions differently in the sentence. It always a noun and can function in any noun position
B.   The gerund phrase
While a gerund functions as a noun. It also retains some of the characteristics of a verb. although it may have adjective modifiers like a noun (usually before it). It may also have adverbial modifiers like a verb (usually after it). If a noun or pronoun precedes a gerund, it must be in the possessive, or adjectival form.
Gerund phrases function in the sentence exactly as simple gerunds do. Both are used in noun position.
Listening requires patience
Listening to the radio is good in understanding English (subject)
Ani likes studying
Ani likes studying in the yard (direct object)
Riky’s favorite sport is fishing
Riky’s favorite sport is fishing for ses bass (subjective complement)
I am tired of arguing
I am tired of arguing with my advisor (object of a preposition)
My hobby, jugging, is not expensive
My hobby, jugging fluming, torches, is not expensive (appositive)
a.       Forms of gerunds
§  General form
o   Present participle  - offering
Being honest at all the time is not always easy
o   Passive progressive           - being offered
The aging couples are counting on being helped financially by their children
§  Perfect form
o   Perfect active                    - having offered, having been offered
I seem to remember having done this exercise before
o   Perfect passive      - having been offered
After having been cleared through customs, he immediately took a taxi to his hotel
b.      Gerund phrases as a subject
A gerund phrase does not occur frequently as a subject. One of its common uses as a subject is in general statements with be as the main verb.
      Eating a good breakfast is very wise
      Taking a long walk every day is good exercise
The gerund phrase may also function as the subject of a verb expressing:
1.      Cause-effect relationship
Seeing her every day made him realiza how wonderful she was
His finding the error quickly saved him (caused him to save) many hours of extra work
A gerund phrase subject with such a verb may have conditional meaning.
Doing such as a thing now (if you do such as a thing now it) will cause you much trouble later on
2.      Emotion
Seeing her so thin and pale shocked him
Being overcharged for anything enrages her
It should be noted that such verbs of emotion aften also denote some degree of cause; thus enrages her, shocked him in the above sentences may be interpreted as causes her to become enraged, caused him to be shocked.
Gerund phrases may also function as subjects of fassive verbs.
His keeping accurate records has never been questioned
Their accepting the money will be considered unwise

Materi Pokok Perkuliahan
Gerund Phrases
a.      Gerund phrases as a object of verb
Certain verbs in English are followed by verbals – either gerunds or infinitives –which  are considered as the object of these verbs. Most of these verbs denote mental activity or indirect speech and therefore require subjects that refers to human beings. Others have little semantic content outside  of indicating aspect-the beginning, duration, end or repeatition of an action; these verbs may or may not be used with subjects denoting persons. There is less agreement that a verbal following one of these aspect denoting verbs is its object; actually, there is some justification for considering a verb that expresses aspect as a quasi-auxiliary rather than as a verb that takes an object.
Verbs followed by gerund objects
Admit                       avoid                    anticipate                      appreciate
Cannot help              consider               contemplate                  defer
Delay                        deny                     detest                            disclaim
Drop                         encourage            enjoy                             escape
Finish                       imagine                keep                              mention
Miss                          postpone              practice                         put off
Recommend             report                   resist                              suggest, etc

b.   Gerund phrases as a object of preposition
Any verbs as used as the object in a prepositional phrase takes the form of a gerund. Most gerund phrases after preposition are subjectless, especially those in adverbial prepositional phrases.
Nominal functionOf prepositional gerund phrases Such gerund phrases function as prepositional objects of verbs. A great many of the verbs listed under prepositional objects
v  He insisted on paying the entire bill for dinner
v  She oftens dreams about having a lot of money to spend the luxuries
Some verbs are followed by either gerund phrase prepositional objects or infinitive phrases objects.
1.      Agree in (or on) going, agree to go
2.      Care about going, care to go
3.      Caution (someone) against going, caution someone to go (apposite meaning)
4.      Decide on going, decide to go
5.      Forget about going, forget to go, etc.
The word toafter the followong verbs is a preposition rather than the sign of the infinitive and therefore reguires a gerund after it – accustom oneself, allude, confess, confine oneself, dedicate oneself, limit oneself, look forward, object, plead gulty, reconcile oneself, resign oneself, resort, revert.
v He objected to their entering the factory without permission
v We look forward to seeing you again.
Adjectival functionOf prepositional gerund phrases. These adjectival constructions appearing after nouns begin mostly with of or for. There are two main
a.         Those prepositional  gerund phrases  that follow nouns derived from verbs or adjectives.
v His pretense of being rich didn’t fool anyone
v Their preparations for travelling abroad were very time- consuming
v He spoke of the necessary of hiring more men
b.       Those prepositional gerund phrases appearing after nouns that are nonderivational. Such adjectival constructions are mostly adjective clause equivalents
v The money for travelling around the country (=with which they could travel around the the country) was soon used up.
v This is not a good way of doing it (= in which you can do it)
v The time for making excuses (=in which you can make excuses) is past.

Materi Pokok Perkuliahan
Gerund phrase
a.      The + gerund + “object” of phrase
Apabila the mengawali gerund, maka “object” ditempatkan didalam frasa of.The storing of the merchandise became a problem after the warehouse burned down. Tetapi storing the merchandise became a problem after the warehouse burned down. Biasanya frasa  yang dimulai dengan the mempunyai kekuatan nomina (noun force) lebih besar. Dalam beberapa frasa gerund , pilihan dengan “object” frasa of dihindari – taking drugs is detrimental to the health.
ü  The school administration is opposed to the shortening of the shool year
ü  The office boy is responsible for (mail, packages)
ü  The little girl was puzzled by (come and go, so many people)
ü  Newspaper are responsible for (shaping, public opinion)
b.      Adjectives-from-adeverbs in gerund phrases
Sebuah adverbia mungkin tidak berubah apabila digunakan pada posisi awal atau akhir dalam frasa gerund.
ü  His wife was shocked at his recklessly breaking the law
ü  His wife was shocked at his breaking the law recklessly
Namun demikian, seringkali adverbia diubah menjadi ajektif yang mengawali gerund
ü  His wife was shocked at his reckless breaking the law
Bentuk adjektif ini dipakai dalam konstruksi the + gerund + frasa of – the constant dripping of the water irritated her.
The hotel was closed unexpectedly
This left the tourists with no place to stay
The unexpected closing of the hotel left the tourists with no place to stay
The waves crashed loudly against the rocks
This prevented him from concentrating on his work
The loud against the rocks crasing of the waves prevent him from concentrating on his work
v  He handled the affair discreetly
v  The company appreciated this
v  The company appreciated his discreet handing of the afair
v  He stabbed his friend fatally
v  He was arrested for this
v  He was arrested for his fatal stabbing of the his friend

Materi Pokok Perkuliahan
Infinitive phrases
a.       Form of Infinitive
The infinitive is made up of to + the simple form of the verb, though to may be dropped when the infinitive follows certain verbs.After the verbs of causing such as let, help, make, have, and verbs of sense usch as see, watch, hear, feel, nouns and object pronouns are used with the simple verb only, without to.
v  Please let me study here
v  I helped him pass the the examination
v  I saw you take the money
v  I watched the bird make its nest
The infinitive and the infinitive phrase may function in the sentence as a noun, an adjective, an adverb, or an absolute phrase.
Ø  Noun
Infinitives and infinitve phrases as subjects are often used in two variations of the same sentence pattern. The meaning is the same in both
a.       To change our habbits is difficult
b.      It is difficult to change our habbits
In this sentence pattern (noun + linking verb + noun/adjective). It is used as a dummy subject; the real sbuject occurs after the verb. This is mainly a stylistic devise
a.    Their ambition is to obtain good jobs ( subject complement)
b.   He likes to play the piano (direct object)
Ø  Adjective
a.    the book to be read this semester are listed ( modifies book)
b.   the desire to succeed is strong in youth (modifies desire)
c.    I have time to visit the you (modifies time)
d.   He is a good man for you to know
e.    He wanted books to juggle acrobatically
Ø  Adverb
a.     We came to discuss business (modifies came)
b.     I hope to see her soon (modifies hope)
c.     To arrive here on time, you must leave now (modifies leave)
d.    Absolute phrase
e.     To be frank, I need money (modifies whole sentence)
f.      To be honest, I did not pass this year (modifies whole sentence)
g.     To tell the truth, he is weak (modifies whole sentence)

Active voice
Passive voice


General form (present infinitive)
To offfer
To be offering
To be offered
Perfect form (past time)
To have offered
To have been offering
To have been offered
a.    They expect to see their new grandson soon
b.    He gave the report to his secretary to be typed
c.    I seem to have lost my key
d.   The boy was too young to have been exposed to such aa dengerous situation
b.      For, Of, To subjects of infinitive phrases
a.       It is ot easy ( I, get up, early)
It is not east for me to get up early
b.      (she, swim,English channel)took a lot of courage
      For her to swim the english channel took a lot of courage
c.       It is not possible (we visit the patient now)
      It is impossible for us to visit patient now
Foolish, polite, stupid, wise, wrong, wicked,  rude, proper and impertinent, considerate, generous, kind good, intelligent, unworthly
a.       It would be foolish (you, stop, now)
      It would be foolish of you to stop now
b.   it is wrong ( they, give, the child, everything, he want)
      it is wrong of them to give the child he wants
c.   it is kind (you, visit, I, in hospital)
      it is kind of you to visit me in hospital
alarming, amazing, amusing, disappointing, embarrassing, irritating, shocking
a.       young, major, be)
      It was amazing to me to learn how young the major was
b.   it was shocking (the aucdience, see, so much, violence, on, screen)
c.   it was embarrassing (he, be, so highly, praised)
Infinitive phrases after too, enough
a.    Too + adjective/adverb + infinitive
·         You are too young to understand
·         She works too slowly to be mush to use to me
b.    Enuogh changes position depending on whether it is modifying a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. When modifying an adjective or an adverb, enough follows
                      + Enough

·         she is old enough to travel by herself
·         he spoke slowly enough for everyone to understand
·         he did not jump high enough to win a prize
when modifying a noun, enough precedes the noun
Enough + noun

I have enough money
Do you have enough sugar for the cake?
Materi Pokok Perkuliahan
Business letter

1.     Application Letter


One of the major problems which people are dealing with is the issue of unemployment. With so many jobs out there for everyone, the question still remains. “Why are there so many people left without any job?” While there are so many people who find jobs easily, there are actually some who are having a hard time doing this. There are quite a number of reasons why people have no jobs. While it may be quite a waste of time pinpointing them out, it is best if you would just do something about it. A solution is always the best way to deal with the issue of unemployment and so far, this has worked for most people.
When looking for a job, you need to understand that this is the battle of the best. You need to make sure that the first step would make an impact on your future employers. How are you going to do this? As with any job applicant, the first thing in the application process is to complete your application letter. This may seem to be of no value to you now, but you will understand that a job application letter is the first step in getting that job that you have always wanted to have. Here are some of the things that you have to keep in mind when you are writing your application letter.

2.     Use An Appropriate Format


The format that you will use in your application letter is very important. Since this is required to be a formal document, you need to use a format that would look professional. It is best to find a format that is often used for business documentation. The fonts should be professional, without using fonts with curls. This would only make the application look casual. The reason for providing a formal
business application letter is to let the employers know that you are serious when it comes to applying for a job. Never make the mistake of making an application letter just because it looks cute.
It is best to have a job application in soft copy because this makes the job application easier. Most companies are now taking advantage of technology which they are utilizing for the application process. In fact, most job applications are completed by electronic submission via email. This makes the handwritten applications with no more value. In fact, typed applications are required for most companies, whether in soft copy or printed form. Always keep in mind that this is the first impression that your employers will have of you so make all the effort that you can in order to make this perfect.

3.     Follow What Needs To Be Attached

In each job application, companies specify the corresponding attachments that they need to peruse. Make sure that you have these ready when submitting your application and never follow up the requirements one by one. Some companies would require you to send a resume, registrations cards, certificates and other important documents. You need to make sure that you have read and included everything that they are asking for when it comes to this.
Alternatively, only include what is asked from you and never attach what is not needed or relevant. If there are more than one attachment, it is proper that you have them mentioned in the letter. It is never polite to let them guess what is included in the email.

4.     Impress Through Your Cover Letter

Since this is the first thing that the employer sees, you need to present yourself in a way that will make a great and lasting impression. You should be able to give them a good and solid picture of who you are, enough to make them call you and interview you. This is very crucial because if you do not make this as effective, chances are, the employer will never call you and your application goes straight to the pile of applications. How exactly should you write this part? First and foremost, the cover letter should be short. You need to place the job position which you want to apply in and how you are qualified to be in this job. Also include where you heard or learned that there is a job vacancy in this position. It is this simple. A straightforward cover letter will work best since the employers are very busy people and they only need to read the first paragraph and know immediately why you are applying for the job. This will instantly give them a good impression of you.

5.     Write An Appropriate Body

The main purpose of writing the body of your application letter is to sell yourself to the employers. Do not get this wrong, but you have to build the best impression about yourself, but still retain your dignity. While you may be tempted to put in everything about yourself, you should not. This is not an essay about your life and there are only certain things that would interest your employers. Only put a certain qualification that you think will be the best one to qualify for the job position that you are applying for. Remember that this qualification should be the best one that you have, that will immediately set you apart from the others and give them the impression that you are the number one choice for this position.
Do not put too much information about yourself in the resume. This is the number one mistake that people have when they make their application letter. They always forget that there is a resume attached to the application and they still write the body of the application letter as if it were a summary. Keep mind that people who are reading your application letter are busy people, so what they are looking for are qualifications that would immediately make an impact on them.
It might be tempting to ask a couple of things about the job like the salary such things, but this is an improper action to do. You are only applying for a job and you should not care about these things. You need to show them that you care about the company and providing your services to them and working for them. By asking these things, the employer will just have nothing but a bad impression on you, thinking that you are only concerned with yourself and not for the job.

6.     Write a Closing Paragraph

A closing paragraph should be included in your application letter in order to conclude it. You should let the employer know that you are willing to be interviewed for the job that you are applying for. You should always include your contact details and how they may reach you through telephone, email or mobile phone. In here, you should be able to give them the impression that you are willing to work for them. You should give them the impression that you are willing to follow the steps to be employed such as succeeding interviews and such. Never think that this is part that can be removed, because without this, the application letter will never be complete.
Once you that you have finished the application letter, it is now time to send it to the employers. One thing that you should always keep in mind, especially when submitting multiple applications is never to forward the same email to all the companies. This can instantly create a bad impression on you. Remember that a forwarded message is always sent in a particular format. Knowing that electronic submission can easily be done, why can’t you send it individually? This will be taken against you so do make it a point to send the emails one by one to the recipients.
You can now understand why an application letter is a crucial part in the application. Your intentions as an applicant will be stated in here, providing convenience for your employer. Always make things easier for them so that they will really take the time to read it. In this fast-paced world, what they are actually looking for is a job application which is concise but is complete. Remember that your application letter can sat a lot about you. When you have prepared this in the most organized manner, they will get this impression on you. Always be careful when completing your application letter.
Never take this for granted because with a professionally made application letter, you will be sure that you will get that job that you want to have. Never settle for what is okay, but make sure to try your best to stand out. You can only do this with the best application letter ever made so do put your best efforts in this. The job market is a competitive one which is why you really need to make the best application letter from the start. Do not let yourself be caught in the unemployment web, especially when you really want to get your dream job. Just follow these simple and easy steps that will bring you to the job position that you want.

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